O'Keefe, John D. and Ahrens, Thomas J. (1993) Planetary Cratering Mechanics. Journal of Geophysical Research E, 98 (E9). pp. 1701117028. ISSN 01480227. doi:10.1029/93JE01330. https://resolver.caltech.edu/CaltechAUTHORS:20141024115404267

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Abstract
The objective of this study was to obtain a quantitative understanding of the cratering process over a broad range of conditions. Our approach was to numerically compute the evolution of impact induced flow fields and calculate the time histories of the key measures of crater geometry (e.g. depth, diameter, lip height) for variations in planetary gravity (0 to 10^9 cm/s^2), material strength (0 to 2400 kbar), and impactor radius (0.05 to 5000 km). These results were used to establish the values of the open parameters in the scaling laws of Holsapple and Schmidt (1987). We describe the impact process in terms of four regimes: (1) penetration, (2) inertial, (3) terminal and (4) relaxation. During the penetration regime, the depth of impactor penetration grows linearly for dimensionless times τ = (Ut/a) <5.1. Here, U is projectile velocity, t is time, and a is projectile radius. In the inertial regime, τ > 5.1, the crater grows at a slower rate until it is arrested by either strength or gravitational forces. In this regime, the increase of crater depth, d, and diameter, D, normalized by projectile radius is given by d/a = 1.3 (Ut/a)^(0.36) and D/a = 2.0(Ut/a)^(0.36). For strengthdominated craters, growth stops at the end of the inertial regime, which occurs at τ = 0.33 (Y_(eff)/ρU^2)^(−0.78), where Y_(eff) is the effective planetary crustal strength. The effective strength can be reduced from the ambient strength by fracturing and shear band melting (e.g. formation of pseudotachylites). In gravitydominated craters, growth stops when the gravitational forces dominate over the inertial forces, which occurs at τ = 0.92 (ga/U^2)^(−0.61). In the strength and gravity regimes, the maximum depth of penetration is d_p/a = 0.84 (Y/ρ U^2)^(−0.28) and d_p/a = 1.2 (ga/U^2)^(−0.22), respectively. The transition from simple bowlshaped craters to complexshaped craters occurs when gravity starts to dominate over strength in the cratering process. The diameter for this transition to occur is given by D_t = 9.0 Y/ρg, and thus scales as g^(−1) for planetary surfaces when strength is not strainrate dependent. This scaling result agrees with cratershape data for the terrestrial planets [Chapman and McKinnon, 1986]. We have related some of the calculable, but nonobservable parameters which are of interest (e.g. maximum depth of penetration, depth of excavation, and maximum crater lip height) to the crater diameter. For example, the maximum depth of penetration relative to the maximum crater diameter is 0.6, for strength dominated craters, and 0.28 for gravity dominated craters. These values imply that impactors associated with the large basin impacts penetrated relatively deeply into the planet's surface. This significantly contrasts to earlier hypotheses in which it had been erroneously inferred from structural data that the relative transient crater depth of penetration decreased with increasing diameter. Similarly, the ratio of the maximum depth of excavation relative to the final crater diameter is a constant ≃0.05, for gravity dominated craters, and ≃ 0.09 for strength dominated craters. This result implies that for impact velocities less than 25 km/s, where significant vaporization begins to take place, the excavated material comes from a maximum depth which is less than 0.1 times the crater diameter. In the gravity dominated regime, we find that the apparent final crater diameter is approximately twice the transient crater diameter and that the inner ring diameter is less than the transient crater diameter.
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Additional Information:  Copyright 1993 by the American Geophysical Union. (Received February 19, 1992; revised May 19, 1993; accepted May 20, 1993.) Paper number 93JE01330. Research supported under NASA grant NAGW 1953. We appreciate the computational assistance of M. Lainhart and many helpful discussions with K. Holsapplea nd R. Schmidt. We very much appreciate the thoughtful and detailed comments made by the reviewers and especially the detailed comments and suggestions of R. Schmidt. In addition, we would like to thank R . Schmidt for photocopies of the figure from his paper. Division of Geological and Planetary Sciences, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, contribution 4859.  
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Issue or Number:  E9  
DOI:  10.1029/93JE01330  
Record Number:  CaltechAUTHORS:20141024115404267  
Persistent URL:  https://resolver.caltech.edu/CaltechAUTHORS:20141024115404267  
Official Citation:  O'Keefe, J. D., and T. J. Ahrens (1993), Planetary cratering mechanics, J. Geophys. Res., 98(E9), 17011–17028, doi:10.1029/93JE01330  
Usage Policy:  No commercial reproduction, distribution, display or performance rights in this work are provided.  
ID Code:  50790  
Collection:  CaltechAUTHORS  
Deposited By:  George Porter  
Deposited On:  24 Oct 2014 20:09  
Last Modified:  10 Nov 2021 19:00 
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